### Optimum design of reinforced concrete retaining

2019-8-30 · Herein, six independent design variables x i (i = 1 to 6) are used to describe the geometry of the concrete wall as shown in Fig. 2.The variables x 1 and x 3 are the stem thicknesses at the top and bottom, respectively. The variables x 2 and x 4 represent the lengths of the footing toe and heel, respectively. The variable x 5 is the footing thickness and the variable x 6 is the additional ...

Get Price